Thursday, January 30, 2020

Islamic Pottery Essay Example for Free

Islamic Pottery Essay Medieval Islamic pottery occupied a geographical position between Chinese ceramics and the pottery of the Byzantine Empire and Europe. For most of the period it can fairly be said to have been between the two in terms of aesthetic achievement and influence as well, borrowing from China and exporting to and influencing Byzantium and Europe. The use of drinking and eating vessels in gold and silver, the ideal in ancient Rome and Persia as well as medieval Christian societies, is prohibited by the Hadiths, with the result that pottery and glass were used for tableware by Muslim elites, as pottery (but less often glass) also was in China, but was much rarer in Europe and Byzantium. Islamic restrictions In the same way Islamic restrictions greatly discouraged figurative wall-painting, encouraging the architectural use of schemes of decorative tiles, which are the most distinctive and original speciality of Islamic ceramics. Era of Islamic Pottery The era of Islamic pottery started around 622. From 633, Muslims armies moved rapidly towards Persia, Byzantium, Mesopotimia, Anatolia, Egypt and later Andalusia. Early History of Islamic Pottery The early history of Islamic pottery remains somewhat obscure and speculative as little evidence has survived. Apart from tiles which escaped destruction due to their use in architectural decoration of buildings and mosques, much early medieval pottery vanished. The Muslim world inherited significant pottery industries in Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, North Africa (African Red Slip) and later other regions. Early Medieval (622-1200) A distinct Muslim style in pottery was not firmly established until the 9th century in Iraq (formerly Mesopotamia), Syria and Persia. During this period pieces mainly used white tin-glaze. Information on earlier periods is very limited. This is largely due to the lack of surviving specimens in good condition which also limits the interest in the study of ceramics of these periods. The most highly regarded technique of this centre is the use of calligraphy in the decoration of vessels. Chinese influence on Islamic Pottery During the Abbasid dynasty pottery production gained momentum, largely using tin glazes mostly in the form of opaque white glaze. Some historians, such as Arthur Lane, attribute the rise of such industry to Chinese influence. Three main phases According to Lane, the influence of Chinese pottery progressed in three main phases.  ·The first contact with China took place in 751 when the Arabs defeated the Chinese at the Battle of Talas. It has been argued that imprisoned Chinese potters and paper makers could have taught the Muslims the art of pottery and paper-making. In 800’s Chinese stoneware and porcelain reached the Abbasids.  ·The second phase took place in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, a period noted for the decline of pottery industry following the fall of the Seljuk dynasty. This period also saw the invasion of the Mongols who brought Chinese pottery traditions.  ·The third phase was in the fifteenth century, when much of this influence came through imports made from Tang, Song and Ming dynasties at the hand of Zheng He. Islamic innovations From between the eighth and eighteenth centuries, the use of glazed ceramics was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery. Tin-opacifiedglazing, for the production of tin-glazed pottery, was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. Middle (1200–1400) By this period the distinctive Islamic tradition of decorated wall tiles had emerged, and continued to develop together with vessel pottery in a way unique to Islamic art. The Seljuks brought new and fresh inspiration to the Muslim world, attracting artists, craftsmen and potters from all regions including Egypt. In addition to continuing the production of similar (although more refined) tin and lustre glaze ceramics, the Seljuks (in Persia) were credited for the introduction of a new type sometimes known as Faience. This is made from a hard white frit paste coated with transparent alkaline glaze. Examples of Islamic Period Pottery  ·Glazed pottery  ·Unglazed pottery Glazed pottery Glazed pottery is typical for the Islamic Period in Egypt, but there is evidence that is was already introduced in the Byzantine Period (Engeman 1990). In contrast to Faience and the glazed materials of the Pharaonic period, true glass was used as glazing. Colours were produced by adding metallic oxides. When transparent it could be applied over paintings. Unglazed pottery  ·Water jugs had often filters built into the neck for keeping out the flies. Especially the examples from Egypt are produced with great delicacy.  ·Most of the pottery of daily use produced in the Islamic period (including down to today) is unglazed.  ·Vessels of uncertain function, with compact fabric: suggestions for use vary from military projectiles to storage of vintage wine.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Sex Education: A Necessity in Public Schools :: Sex Education Essays

Sex Education: A Necessity in Public Schools Today Alice was a normal sixteen year old; she loved school, her family and her boyfriend. She was having a blast during her Junior year, until the day she found out about the "accident". Alice and her boyfriend ,Brad, had been together for over two years, and they planned to get married. Both of them felt they were ready to have sex. However, neither of them knew anything about birth control or the dangers of having unprotected sex. What they knew about sex they had learned from watching television and from what their friends had told them. So one night they decided to go ahead and try it. Then about six weeks later, Alice noticed that she wasn't feeling well and that she hadn't gotten her period for a long time. Of course, Alice had no idea what was wrong with her, so she told her mother how she didn't feel well and she hadn't had her period. Alice's mother asked Alice if she and Brad had slept together, and Alice had to tell her the truth. Right away her mother knew exactly what was wrong. Alice was pregnant. Alice's mother, Gertrude, immediately called Brad's parents. The teenagers and their parents met and discussed the "accident". Later that year Alice dropped out of school and gave birth to twin girls. By this time, Brad had graduated and found a job, where he could work enough to support Alice and the twins. This one "accident" changed Alice and Brad's lives forever. Alice never made it to her sex education class her senior year. Alice got pregnant during a time when most teenagers weren't having sex. However, recently a survey done by Health Initiatives for Youth , showed that more than two-thirds of high school students in the U.S. have had sex by the time they are Seniors ("Sex Education. . ."). The history of sex education goes back to the late nineteenth century. Sex education then consisted of medical and biological information about venereal disease and reproduction. Later, when the Second World War was over, mass media played a large role in making information on sex available to kids. Many people felt this caused a need for sex education in public school ("Sex Eduation," Encarta.). Halfheartedly public schools began teaching minimal sex education, until the late 1960's, when educational and governmental organizations created more developed programs for sex education in schools.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Use Source A and your knowledge of the period to explain why people supported Roosevelt in the 1932 election

By 1932 unemployment in the USA had reached 13 million and was rising rapidly. The poor were without food and eating in soup kitchens. The depression was causing public disorder and when a group of 22,000 First World War veterans (The Bonus Army) marched to Washington because, like many other people, these veterans were poor and demanded to be given an immediate bonus which the government had promised to give them in 1945, tanks were sent in to disperse them. People were shocked by the violence and critical of the government's response. The Republicans, lead by President Hoover did not believe in interfering in business to promote prosperity, he claimed that it was the government's job to encourage rather than to spend. As a result he refused to set up relief programmes to help the unemployed and he argued that it was up to the individuals to turn around the economy. The people were unhappy as they had been promised ‘the final triumph over poverty' in 1928, but the Republicans had been unable to offer any solution to the collapse of the economy. Roosevelt was a good campaigner showing himself to be cheerful, optimistic and caring, whereas Hoover was plodding, drab and defeated throughout the election campaign. The speech in Source A is in terms of waging war on poverty, Roosevelt talks of a ‘call to arms', a ‘crusade' and ‘waging war'. This is very active and energetic in contrast to Hoover's defensiveness. The people had been hurt by poverty and were being given a chance to fight back by voting for the Democrats. Roosevelt appeals to patriotism in his ‘crusade to restore America' and gives hope when using the word ‘restore' that prosperity can return. The phrasing ‘Destruction, Delay, Deceit and Despair' is full of energy and shows that Roosevelt means business. People supported Roosevelt in the 1932 election because they were disillusioned with Hoover who had been unable to bring them out of the depression and because Roosevelt was positive, forceful and able to give hope. A ‘New Deal' appealed to them because the old deal had failed and they were being called to take action against poverty along with their government as Roosevelt says ‘Give me your help†¦ to win in this crusade'

Monday, January 6, 2020

The History of Cosmetics and the Trends in the Fashion...

This research paper will discuss some of the history of cosmetics and new trends and types of cosmetics in the fashion industry and different types of hair extensions. Would you ever guess that film makeup started back when there was black and white movies? One type of cosmetic in the fashion industry would be eyelash extensions, or fake eyelashes. Eyelash extensions have been around since 1916 , but recently have become a trend. The first fake eyelashes were made of human hair and were made for an actress to wear in a movie. Fake eyelashes can be made from human hair or from synthetic materials. There are two different kinds of fake eyelashes. There are temporary and eyelash extensions, The main difference is that the adhesive or glue,†¦show more content†¦Corrective makeup can also be used to enhance good features of the face or body. When planning on doing corrective makeup you need the right supplies. For corrective makeup you should always have lip lining pencils, different shades of foundations and concealers, different color eye shadows , and translucent powders. When doing corrective makeup it is always important to know what to pay close attention to when working with different areas of the face. When working with eyes , decide whether the eyes are set close together or far apart ,and if they are wide or narrow ,and depending on the color of the eyes what color eye shadow you should use. For eyebrows, always take into mind what face shape the person has. A high arched eyebrow could make a long face appear longer. While working in different areas you always have to pay close attention on what colors and techniques you shouldnt use. Corrective makeup makes many women ,and men feel better about things they dont like about themselves. Instead of getting plastic surgery , people can learn to enhance or hide the parts of their face that they are not completely happy with. The biggest and most creative form of makeup would be Special effects makeup. Special effects makeup is used mainly in film , movies , modeling and theatre. The first use of special effects makeup wasShow MoreRelatedThe Global Beauty Industry Value Being Estimated Around Us $ 265 Billion1987 Words   |  8 PagesWith the global beaut y industry value being estimated around US$265 billion by 2017, it is evident that the cosmetic industry is a successful one. Hence, this paper will focus on the elements that have shaped the personal grooming industry, into what it is today. The evolution of the cosmetic industry will be highlighted. Furthermore, the estimated revenues made as of 2015, will be underscored to show this industry’s market values and statistical diagrams will be used to represent the most relevantRead MoreWar, And Fashion Magazines1286 Words   |  6 Pagesmakeup at all. The 20th century changed dramatically due to the silent films, war, and fashion magazines. 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